Table 2: Conditions Supportive of School Improvement–
Implications for TBTs




Educators’ agreement with a set of shared beliefs and understandings


Not all shared beliefs lead to high achievement. Two essential shared beliefs are these: (1) provided with the right amount of time and the right supports, all students can reach high standards and (2) provided with the right types of assistance, all teachers can teach to high standards.

Teachers’ willingness and ability to explain and provide evidence for their instructional practices


The disposition to identify and justify one’s own instructional practice opens that practice up to one’s own scrutiny and the scrutiny of others. Examining practices in light of evidence is an essential condition for professional learning.

Shared accountability


Collective efficacy depends on the willingness of all educators to assume responsibility for improving instruction for all students.


High expectations

Research on teacher expectations shows that they influence students’ feelings of efficacy and eventually their performance


Early and just-in-time intervention

Students suffer when they are not given timely and focused support.


Collaborative inquiry (e.g., action research)

Examination of evidence about the effectiveness of particular instructional practices with particular students (or groups) must occur at the teacher and team levels so that teachers can modify instructional practices to improve learning.


Instructional coaches

Teachers need support in order to use instructional practices with which they are unfamiliar.


Principal’s instructional leadership

Coordination and oversight of the work of teacher teams is critical for school-wide improvement; collaboration in the development and implementation of effective district-wide strategies is also critical.


Using classroom and individual data to guide instructional planning

Although district-level and school-level data offer insights about trends, they are too far removed from the classroom to guide instructional decisions and plans.


Collaborative meetings by grade level or subject area

Teachers benefit from collaborations with colleagues especially when those collaborations involve inquiry about the efficacy of instructional practices for individual students and cohorts of students.


Centralized allocation of resources

Leaders with a broader view of district and school needs are in the best position to allocate resources in order to support improvement efforts.

Ohio's Data Team Process: Teacher-based Teams (TBTs) in Action

© 2015 School of Education and Health Sciences Grant Center, University of Dayton